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Apraxic disorders affecting upper and lower limbs and upper and lower face districts were investigated by means of newly arranged and standardised tests. The role of the right hemisphere for face apraxia and SMA for locomotion have been addressed.
Most important papers are marked with an asterisk.


Ideomotor Apraxia

Face Apraxia

Gait Apraxia 

Ideomotor Apraxia

Face Apraxia

Basso A, Luzzatti C, Spinnler H (1980) Is ideomotor apraxia the outcome of damage of well-defined regions of the left hemisphere? Journal of Neuroloy, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 43: 118-126

Della Sala S, Lucchelli F, Spinnler H (1987) Ideomotor apraxia in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Journal of Neurology 234: 91-93

Basso A, Capitani E, Della Sala S, Laiacona M , Spinnler H (1987) Ideomotor apraxia: A study of initial severity. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 76: 142-146

Basso A, Capitani E, Della Sala S, Laiacona M, Spinnler H (1987) Recovery from ideomotor apraxia: A study on acute stroke patients. Brain 110:747-760

Capone J, Della Sala S, Spinnler H, Venneri A (2003) Upper and lower face and ideomotor apraxia in Alzheimer patients. Behavioural Neurology 14: 1-8

Della Sala S, Faglioni P, Motto C, Spinnler H (2006) Hemisphere asymmetry for imitation of hand and finger movements: Goldenberg’s hypothesis reworked. Neuropsychologia 44: 1496-1500

Ambrosoni E, Della Sala S, Motto C, Oddo S, Spinnler H (2006) Gesture imitation with lower limbs following left hemiasphere stroke. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21: 349-358
Mariani C, Spinnler H, Sterzi R, Vallar G (1980) Bilateral perisylvian softenings: Bilateral anterior opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome) Journal of Neurology 223:269-284

Bizzozero I, Costato D, Della Sala S, Papagno C, Spinnler H (2000) Upper and lower face apraxia: Role of the right hemisphere. Brain 123: 2213-2230

Della Sala S, Maistrello B, Motto C, Spinnler H (2006) A new account of face apraxia based on a longitudinal study. Neuropsychologia 44: 1159-1165

Gait Apraxia

Della Sala S, Francescani A, Spinnler H (2002) Gait apraxia following bilateral SMA-lesion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 72: 77-85 *

Della Sala S, Spinnler H, Venneri A (2004) Walking difficulties in patients with Alzheimer’s disease might originate from gait apraxia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 75: 196-201

                            Contacts:  hans.spinnler@unimi.it

Updated to July 2011